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Unfortunately, its reliability diminishes with increasing cognitive impairment, in which case the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) is preferred. The CSDD relies on an interview with a family member or caregiver as well as with the patient, and is validated for use in patients with or without dementia. A complete assessment for LLD requires: • Reviewing diagnostic criteria for late-life depression and assessing the patient for depression using appropriate screening tools. Health Canada endorsed important safety information on Celexa (citalopram hydobromide). In addition, geriatric patients may use more lethal suicide methods, with data from 2009 showing 26.0% of victims over 60 died by firearm, compared with 12.0% of those aged 15 to 39. Detection and assessment Detection of late-life depression is more effective when predisposing and precipitating risk factors are considered. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends the following citation style, which is the now nearly universally accepted citation style for scientific papers: Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which meets annually.
According to Statistics Canada, 19.0% of Canada’s 3890 suicide victims in 2009 were older than 60. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. The ICMJE created the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals to help authors and editors create and distribute accurate, clear, easily accessible reports of biomedical studies.
Older men have a higher suicide rate than older women and are a particularly high-risk group. Placebo-controlled study of relapse prevention with risperidone augmentation in older patients with resistant depression. An alternate version of ICMJE style is to additionally list the month an issue number, but since most journals use continuous pagination, the shorter form provides sufficient information to locate the reference. BCMJ standard citation style is a slight modification of the ICMJE/NLM style, as follows: Above is the information needed to cite this article in your paper or presentation. The ICMJE is small group of editors of general medical journals who first met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for bibliographic references developed by the U. National Library of Medicine (NLM), were first published in 1979.
One study showed that 12.0% to 45.0% of hospitalized patients experienced depressive symptoms, and 12.4% of nursing home residents met criteria for major depression. LLD leads to significant distress and is associated with several adverse outcomes. Dr Wilkins-Ho is a clinical associate professor in the Division of Geriatric Psychiatry at the University of British Columbia.
Functional impairment from the illness may overwhelm caregivers and lead to placement in a care facility. Health Canada endorsed important safety information on atypical antipsychotic drugs and dementia. Dr Wiese is a clinical assistant professor in the Division of Geriatric Psychiatry at the University of British Columbia.
Sleep disturbance may be a result of physical illness, chronic pain, or the use of substances such as opioids.
Psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and anergia can be caused by physical or neurological illness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, duloxetine-referenced, fixed-dose study comparing the efficacy and safety of Lu AA21004 in elderly patients with major depressive disorder.
Feelings of worthlessness and suicidal ideation may be attributable to end-of-life issues.
Two screening tools for LLD can assist in diagnosis. Profile of vortioxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder: An overview of the primary and secondary literature.
There is good evidence to support the use of psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy alone, and the two in combination. Distressing adverse events after antidepressant switch in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial: Influence of adverse events during initial treatment with citalopram on development of subsequent adverse events with an alternative antidepressant.
For milder forms of LLD, psychotherapy may be recommended as a stand-alone treatment, with the addition of pharmacotherapy if required.