A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering.On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages.The grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.Tags: Cover Letter Event CoordinatorCreative Script WritingSat Essay HelpBiography Term PaperAp Environmental Science Essay Questions AnswersSessay North YorkshireWhat Goes Into A Literature ReviewHow To Write Phd Thesis
Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, and adapters in various periods (especially pre-Classical Rome, and the 18th century), translators have generally shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" (e.g., style, verse form, concordance with musical accompaniment or, in films, with speech articulatory movements) as determined from context.
In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, and hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa.
is in fact an art both estimable and very difficult, and therefore is not the labor and portion of common minds; [it] should be [practiced] by those who are themselves capable of being actors, when they see greater use in translating the works of others than in their own works, and hold higher than their own glory the service that they render their country.
Due to Western colonialism and cultural dominance in recent centuries, Western translation traditions have largely replaced other traditions.
The same point, but also including listening to the spoken language, had earlier, in 1783, been made by the Polish poet and grammarian Onufry Kopczyński.
The translator's special role in society is described in a posthumous 1803 essay by "Poland's La Fontaine", the Roman Catholic Primate of Poland, poet, encyclopedist, author of the first Polish novel, and translator from French and Greek, Ignacy Krasicki: [T]ranslation...The Western traditions draw on both ancient and medieval traditions, and on more recent European innovations.Though earlier approaches to translation are less commonly used today, they retain importance when dealing with their products, as when historians view ancient or medieval records to piece together events which took place in non-Western or pre-Western environments.However, due to shifts in ecological niches of words, a common etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language.For example, the English actual should not be confused with the cognate French actuel ("present", "current"), the Polish aktualny ("present", "current," "topical", "timely", "feasible"), ("urgent", "topical") or the Dutch actueel ("current").The main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics such as Cicero.Dryden observed that "Translation is a type of drawing after life..." Comparison of the translator with a musician or actor goes back at least to Samuel Johnson's remark about Alexander Pope playing Homer on a flageolet, while Homer himself used a bassoon. In the 13th century, Roger Bacon wrote that if a translation is to be true, the translator must know both languages, as well as the science that he is to translate; and finding that few translators did, he wanted to do away with translation and translators altogether. Kelly states that since Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century, "it has been axiomatic" that one translates only toward his own language.This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any that has been proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome, famously and literally cautioned against translating "word for word" (verbum pro verbo).Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity.Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities.The ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase (literal translation) and paraphrase.