This information is replaced by a shortened (5 words or less) form of the title: is italicised (as is in Latin), begins with a capital letter, and is followed by a full stop if referring to the same page (e.g.
A footnote begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
Align the footnote text vertically on the left-hand side as shown in the example below.
The Traditional Footnoting System requires that the footnote numerals be placed at the end of the sentence, directly after the full stop.
The superscripted numerals direct the reader to references at the bottom of the page.
Semicolons are used to separate each of the references.
However, it is conventional to place the primary source first when primary and secondary sources are cited in a single footnote, regardless of alphabetical order: Back to top of page It is not necessary to repeat all the bibliographical details if these have already been provided in previous footnotes.
If you are unsure about how to use endnotes, consult with your professor. In general, the use of footnotes in most academic writing is now considered a bit outdated and has been replaced by endnotes, which are much easier to place in your paper, even with the advent of word processing programs.
However, some disciplines, such as law and history, still predominantly utilize footnotes.
However, it is conventional to place the primary source first when primary and secondary sources are cited in a single footnote, regardless of alphabetical order.
In the MHRA system, references to sources used in your work are set out in full in notes, either at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the piece of work (endnotes).