Researchers have shown a positive correlation between peer pressure and the consumption of alcohol among a sample of adolescents (Simons-Morton et al. Qualitative research conducted by Karimi-Shahanjarini et al (2010) showed how Iranian females were more likely to identify peer pressure as one of the main reasons for their unhealthy snacking.
Over time socio-economic factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) which is measured through education, income and occupation begin to have a substantial impact on health.
Other psychological factors such as wellbeing also have an impact on health.
Diener et al (2012) found a positive correlation between subjective wellbeing and increased longevity.
These factors are often split between social determinants which include factors related to the social, economic and physical environment such as: social exclusion, neighbourhood conditions, and income; and psychological determinants which mainly focus on internal factors related to emotion and cognition such as stress, self-esteem and wellbeing. International Journal of Public Health, 54 (2), 235-242. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191 (6), 477-483.
This essay examines whether social determinants have more of an impact on health and potential illness compared to psychological determinants. Snack frequency: associations with healthy and unhealthy food choices. Moreno, C., Sánchez-Queija, I., Muñoz-Tinoco, V., de Matos, M. Morgan, C., Burns, T., Fitzpatrick, R., Pinfold, V., & Priebe, S.
Many researchers believe that education plays a big role in an individual’s health as it can be enhanced through changes in educational policies.
For example, for a youth’s educational quality to improve, and thus lead to long term health benefits, changes such as reducing high school dropout rates and creating more opportunities for higher education would require a policy-related process (Compton and Shim, 2015). M who had suffered from amnesia due to the removal of his temporal lobes and hippocampus would also be a good example of how education can have an impact on health and illness.
Social inequalities within education can lead to inequalities in health, in that poorer education often leads to poorer health and risk of illness (also referred to as an education gradient).
Culter et al (2006) found that better educated people had lower morbidity rates from the most common acute and chronic diseases.