For some instructional purposes one or the other item types may prove more efficient and appropriate.To begin out discussion of the relative merits of each type of test item, test your knowledge of these two item types by answering the following questions.Studies1 by Sax & Collet (1968) and Paterson (1926) conducted forty-two years apart reached the same conclusion: "...there seems to be no escape from the conclusions that the two types of exams are measuring identical things." (Paterson, p.Tags: 6th Grade Science HomeworkXavier Anguera ThesisHow To Write A Movie EssayCorporal Punishment EssayFast Food Persuasive Essay OutlineEssay About Characteristics Of A Successful College StudentIntroduction Paragraph Examples For Research PapersFrench Revolution Compared To American Revolution EssayCompanies Business PlanHow To Write A Literature Review For A Research Paper
Also presented is a set of general suggestions for the construction of each item variation.
The multiple-choice item consists of two parts: (a) the stem, which identifies the question or problem and (b) the response alternatives.
Answers can consist of only two choices (simple), more than two choices (complex), or two choices plus a conditional completion response (compound).
An example of each type of true-false item follows: Avoid the use of specific determiners which would permit a test-wise but unprepared examinee to respond correctly.
constant use of essay tests may encourage the knowledgeable but poor writing student to improve his/her writing ability in order to improve performance.
Essays are more subjective in nature due to their susceptibility to scoring influences.Due to the extent of time required by the student to respond to an essay question, only a few essay questions can be included on a classroom exam.Consequently, a larger number of objective items can be tested in the same amount of time, thus enabling the test to cover more content.Consequently, students with good writing skills have an advantage over students who have difficulty expressing themselves through writing.Essays do not teach a student how to write but they can emphasize the importance of being able to communicate through writing.When used, such alternatives should occasionally be used as the correct response.Table of Contents A true-false item can be written in one of three forms: simple, complex, or compound.Following is a set of recommendations for using either objective or essay test items: (Adapted from Robert L. Collet, "An Empirical Comparison of the Effects of Recall and Multiple-Choice Tests on Student Achievement," Journal of Educational Measurement, vol. To further illustrate, several sample learning objectives and appropriate test items are provided on the following page.Ebel, Essentials of Educational Measurement, 1972, p. After you have decided to use either an objective, essay or both objective and essay exam, the next step is to select the kind(s) of objective or essay item that you wish to include on the exam.There are two general categories of test items: (1) objective items which require students to select the correct response from several alternatives or to supply a word or short phrase to answer a question or complete a statement; and (2) subjective or essay items which permit the student to organize and present an original answer.Objective items include multiple-choice, true-false, matching and completion, while subjective items include short-answer essay, extended-response essay, problem solving and performance test items.